To demonstrate the possibility of creating a highly realistic computer model, the church of St.PaleoMD
To demonstrate the possibility of creating a highly realistic computer model, the church of St.
The rapid spread of computer technology has led to the emergence of fundamentally new methods in restoration. They are able to reproduce graphic information of any kind and turn it into forms easily accessible to humans.
Now there is a real opportunity to combine all the knowledge related to any area, and make them easily accessible to humans.
Theoretical principles of restoration of architectural monuments with the help of computer technology
In our case, we consider the architectural monuments of ancient Russia, the data on which are scattered in numerous books, articles, drawings, pictures, etc., and all this is in different places, repositories, archives. Finally, just in different countries. The created database will allow to use all available information today.
This approach, when a person has the full amount of knowledge on this issue, allows a different approach to the assessment of an architectural monument, its significance and the solution of many private practical problems of today in the field of architecture, restoration, etc.
Computer technology allows you to bring any copy closer to the original with greater probability and accuracy. Developing and improving, it opens up more and more artistic and technical possibilities. This feature of technology is particularly significant.
Restoration and reconstruction is full not only of discoveries, brilliant achievements, but also sad mistakes. Today the issue of preservation and revival of cultural monuments is especially acute.
Cultural monuments are subject to restoration and return to us in the form of originals, copies, analogues. The presence of high-quality “digital” images allows you to restore lost fragments or the monument as a whole.
Creating an information bank helps to understand and feel the conditions when this or that architectural monument was created, historical buildings, feel the connection of times, recreate the lost, restore missing data for each monument, supplement the existing traditional databases of art.
Access to information (detailed scientific description, image of an object with details and fragments, inscriptions, signatures, etc., two-dimensional or three-dimensional model), regardless of where this information is stored. The global network provides unlimited opportunities to analyze the cultural phenomena of the past.
The main tasks of restoration and reconstruction are well known, and the quality of their solution depends on many factors. Among the first in the list is also the need to master new technologies, knowledge of which expands existing techniques to complement and enrich them.
The use of the computer as a powerful tool of the restorer, allows to implement the principle of “do no harm” to the work of art in full.
Natural aging of materials, unfortunately, leads to the fact that the murals fade and the walls collapse. Numerous reasons, such as ruthless times, natural disasters, wars, the dictates of power, the mistakes of restorers often lead to significant changes or to the complete destruction of works of art. Various layers, additions and alterations have been accumulating on art monuments for centuries. The works of medieval painting underwent the greatest changes, many of which over the centuries of their existence have become picturesque layers of different eras.
Methods and practical side of restoration of architectural structures with the help of electronic technologies
The proposed method allows you to find a compromise solution in a dispute about the reconstruction of the object or its restoration, because all previous work is conducted only with an electronic copy.
Until there is any coherent concept that reveals the problem of using the achievements of science in art, it is also extremely difficult to find and identify the edge where the tool of activity can and should be a computer.
To demonstrate the possibility of creating a highly realistic computer model, the church of St. George in Old Ladoga. The choice was due to the following reasons:
the architecture of the church has a great historical and artistic significance in the history of world art; the architectural ensemble has an interesting three-dimensional solution; the architectural ensemble has a distinct landscape and picturesque surroundings; materials on Staraya Ladoga are in sufficient quantity and relatively easily available for use when creating a computer model;
Staraya Ladoga is well known to all and the assessment of the probability of the created computer model does not cause big problems.
This is not about the intrusion of the picturesque areas of the frescoes glued to the whole walls of the temple: the task of reconstruction of the ensemble or its sections is considered exclusively in graphic schemes.
Fig. 1. The results of measurements.
From this picturesque ensemble of the church of St. George of the twelfth century. in Old Ladoga preserved about 20% of the area of the oldest frescoes, but located so well that there is a real possibility of graphic reconstruction of many planes.
Fig. 2. Construction in one of the packages of three-dimensional modeling. (According to the results of measurements).
The main goal is to study the capabilities of computer graphics packages and create, if necessary, special programs. Their application in practice is aimed at preserving ancient n architecture and monumental painting.
Computer reconstruction provides an opportunity to look not only at the monument itself, but allows you to get almost any information related to this monument, left by people all the time.
Ancient Russian art has developed its own style, its own creative method. This symbol is a certain orderly image, which was enshrined in the practice of generations by the canon.
Fig. 3. Preserved picturesque areas of frescoes of the church of St. George. (East wall).
The concept of canon includes the canon of proportions, color and compositional canons. With their help symbolic meanings were fixed rather rigidly in consciousness. Hence the fixity of color, light, etc.
Ancient Russian artists used in wall painting mainly natural earth and mineral dyes, which allows, in electronic reconstruction, to work quite accurately with color.
Currently, the frescoes have lost their original color. Sometimes the plaster lags behind, or lime whitewash reacted negatively on the upper colored layer.
After cleaning, the color scheme of the frescoes fades. Computer reconstruction allows to achieve the desired color saturation.
Based on the results obtained, many mistakes can be avoided in the restoration and preservation of monumental ancient Russian painting.
The results of the research can be further used:
as a scientific and methodological material that justifies this direction to solve the problems of restoration, to justify further research, in the development of new forms of information.
The practical significance of the study is that the results of the work will allow the use of the algorithm of reconstruction and modeling of monumental ancient Russian painting, as well as expands the arsenal of traditional techniques and means of restoration. The method is relevant for both practical and pedagogical activities.
Fig. 4. Graphic reconstruction of frescoes.
The main provisions are practically tested in the restoration workshops of the Hermitage, at the Department of Restoration of the SPGHPA, in the museum-reserve Stara Ladoga.
Success in computer reconstruction largely depends on the baggage of knowledge and experience gained in conventional reconstruction, when the restorer works with his hands with the materials, they know and feel them perfectly. Without a living knowledge of the material and technology often produce products devoid of human heat.
Creating a purely computer synthetic model of an architectural monument is likely to repel a person who knows the subject, but we may also get a misconception about the aesthetic value of this architectural monument, thereby destroying the original human ideas of beauty.
Successful application of computer reconstruction requires from the restorer both excellent knowledge of the subject, and knowledge of the new “tool” of reconstruction that certainly demands rather big time expenses for the process of training and acquisition of skills of work, but there is a much bigger possibility at sufficient level. professionalism to do completely unique things, some of which are virtually unrealizable in the real world.
The help of a computer to reconstruct works of art provides new opportunities.
These computer capabilities reduce time. The main work in filling losses is to bring the “finishing material” to the original, “enter” it, without striving at the same time to the absolute external similarity of the filled fragments and the original.
The computer helps the restorer to avoid many mistakes, even on the screen with many ways of restoration he can find the right one and check himself.
In case of a tree grows in brooklyn chapter 39 summary an erroneous decision – the computer provides an opportunity to return to the original version of the preparatory work at any stage without damaging the subject.
The restorer does the entire restoration process on the monitor screen and creates the end result. In this case, the picture, the color scheme of the copy corresponds to the original.
Computer reconstruction at this time stage of development should occupy a certain niche along with traditional methods, which in no way rejects or reduces the role of existing methods, but only organically complements them to the extent that it is recognized by life practice.
Conclusion. Based on the results of the work done, the following conclusions can be drawn.
Computer technology allows you to save what’s left and at the same time reconstruct the lost.
The obtained results confirm the usefulness and undoubted prospects of using computer technologies in the whole space of museum activity.
Virtual restoration and reconstruction can be successfully implemented with a reasonable combination of intuitive artistic thinking and scientific technology.
The emergence of a new scientific discipline, which can be conventionally referred to as artistic and computer reproduction of works of art.
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