Methods of lecture: 1. The content of the lecture should correspond to the appropriate scientific level.

Methods of lecture: 1. The content of the lecture should correspond to the appropriate scientific level.

Methods of lecture: 1. The content of the lecture should correspond to the appropriate scientific level.

Extracurricular educational work is also aimed at solving the problems of aesthetic education. In addition to conversations, lectures, debates, thematic evenings, evenings of questions and answers on aesthetic topics, valuable in aesthetic education is the participation of students in school art clubs, amateur art circles, literary associations, musical ensembles and school orchestras, school theaters … Students can expand and deepen their aesthetic knowledge, skills and abilities in out-of-school educational institutions: music and art schools, houses and palaces of schoolchildren, studios.

The family plays an important role in the aesthetic education of schoolchildren. Proper aesthetic design of the apartment, the availability of a library, art magazines, TV, family traditions for discussing TV shows, books read, family vacations in nature, joint visits to the theater – all this creates favorable conditions for instilling aesthetic tastes in children …


Forms of teaching: lecture. Abstract

The process of activating learning requires a certain joint activity of teacher and student, the use of various tools, forms, systems of actions, techniques aimed at solving educational problems

Recently, more and more attention is paid to the use of advanced information technologies, methods of simulation, pedagogical interaction and more.

In the system of activating learning, the lecture method occupies a leading place, because the lecture is the main form of conducting educational classes in an educational institution, designed to master the theoretical material.

A lecture is a logically stated, systematically consistent set of oral teaching methods (information message, explanation, story, conversation), aimed at the realization of students’ reproductive or productive creative activity. In its structure, lectures are based on a combination of historical and logical principles, and in some lectures the advantage of one of them is possible. The external structure of the lecture – introduction, presentation, final part. These are optional components of each lecture, but “the logical harmony, comparison and interrelationships of the individual parts of the lecture are necessary conditions for its success.”

The introduction should be short, lively and expressive: functionally it is a “tuning fork” that should set the audience for productive learning. In the following presentation, as a rule, the lecturer consistently naming his opinion, directs students to understand the ideas of the lecture, using various proofs of the correctness of scientific and theoretical positions, illustrating them with applied, digital, visual aids.

It is very difficult to give short general conclusions on specific issues of the topic. The final part summarizes, gives the necessary generalization, makes scientific-theoretical and practical conclusions to guide further self-study of students and create a scientific basis for the next lecture.

Significant assistance in determining the structure of the lecture and the selection of educational material is provided by the lecture plan with an approximate distribution of time on individual issues. To finally determine the content and structure of the lecture requires a synopsis of varying degrees of detail, depending on the experience of the teacher. For a beginning teacher it is necessary to have the full text of the lecture. But in the classroom, the teacher should not read it literally to students.

Good results in preparation for the lecture gives a complete or fragmentary recording of it on a tape recorder, followed by listening for improvement. A manuscript or synopsis can be used during a lecture for reference or precise wording of regulations, rules, laws, etc.

It is very important that the teaching material is scientific. The lecture will have significant educational value if the material is based on the results of modern scientific research. An important factor of students’ interest is the combination of the lecturer’s own scientific results, which significantly affects his authority as a teacher.

The lecture should be read figuratively, the teacher should use images and comparisons taken from real life or folk art. You can not communicate with the audience only in the language of numbers, scientific facts, laws, conclusions. However, you should not overuse “winged” expressions, quotes, because their excess can cause the loss of independent opinion of the lecturer. The language of the lecturer is crucial for the realization of the goal.

The ability to speak, to keep the audience in suspense is a great art that has been mastered for years. Naturally, the more complex the content of lectures, the simpler and clearer the language should be.

At the same time, it is impossible to speak in the audience memorized, ready phrases. The language should be lively and natural, the wording precise and short.

The pace of the lecture is very important. The pace of the lecture is influenced by the listeners. An experienced teacher sees whether students have time to take notes, how they perceive the material, whether it sufficiently controls their attention, etc.

Lecture methods:

1. The content of the lecture must correspond to the appropriate scientific level.

2. The lecture must have a streamlined structure:

the introduction, which highlights the relevance of the topic, should mobilize students’ attention and interest them; the plan of lectures should help students to follow the thoughts of the lecturer, to master them easier and more thoroughly; the central part of the lecture – the presentation of the topic – should, according to the plan, consistently reveal the content of the topic; in the final part, the lecturer summarizes the thoughts, emphasizes the main statements of the lecture.

3. The language of the lecture must be correct both grammatically and stylistically

4. The form of the lecture should be lively, interesting.

5. The lecturer should pay attention to the pronunciation, which should be a model for students, to have a voice.

6. The lecturer should pay attention to the auxiliary means of speech: intonation, facial expressions, gestures.

7. During the lecture, the teacher should sit or, better yet, stand to see all the students.

8. The lecturer must prepare a synopsis before the lecture.

9. You need to pay attention to the pace of the lecture.

10. The lecturer must maintain full contact with the audience.

These requirements – are a set of external pedagogical conditions that are necessary but insufficient to ensure productive learning activities of students in lectures. These conditions are always refracted through the individual characteristics of the individual, his activities, the relationship between students. The effectiveness of training depends on the level of mental development of the student, his cognitive abilities, attitude to work, features of mental activity.

A significant role in the formation of productive cognitive needs in lectures belongs to the installation – it is – a willingness to a certain activity aimed at meeting a particular need.

Before acting in accordance with the educational task, the student must come to a state of internal readiness.

The need for active cognitive actions is expressed by the setting “Required!”, “Must!”. A significant role belongs to the teacher, his ability to organize the working mood of students through influences and suggestions.

Another important condition for the formation of productive cognitive needs should be the organization of awareness of perception. Perception of objects, objects is reduced to their recognition – to mentally name it, determine the purpose, refer to a particular class or species.

The essence of awareness of perception is that students, perceiving educational objects, subjects try to find in them similarities with what is already known to them, to find a suitable place in the system of personal concepts and ideas. Students must constantly know what, for what purpose and how they should perceive. This is facilitated by an introductory speech, the selection of leading information centers, explanations of statements, clarification of the mental meanings of scientific terms or underused words.

No less important condition for the formation of student activity is the organization of attention. Organizing students’ attention means directing their conscious actions to the content of educational material, encouraging them to think, comprehend.

KD Ushinsky pointed out the significant role of attention in mastering knowledge: “To develop a student’s attention to scientific subjects means to pave a wide and easy way for him to study. Attention – the only gate through which conscious knowledge, only one fruitful, can pass into the mental abilities of the student. A student’s lack of ability is for the most part nothing more than an inability to be attentive. “

At the lecture, the stability of attention is ensured by the fact that the lecturer not only communicates scientific facts, but by thinking, involves the whole audience in reflection. Addressing students with the questions: “What is it?”, “What is it about?”, “Why?”, “What does it mean?” not only delays attention on certain educational material, but also accustoms them to the logic of thinking, teaches to analyze, justify, generalize, systematize.

If a teacher goes from explaining one learning question to another, he must switch students’ attention! To do this, it is necessary to summarize the previous educational work and clearly indicate the purpose of future educational activities!

It is important not to distract students from their main job. There are many reasons for this: laziness, extraneous stimuli, monolithic presentation, simplicity and ease of educational material, and so on.

Taking into account the above psychological and pedagogical conditions during the lecture not only increases the effectiveness of learning the material. But also stimulates the formation of productive cognitive needs and learning motives.

The teacher must always be himself, give lectures with his own manner and techniques, without patterns and “dramatization”. Only a painstaking search for the content and form of the lecture will lead to the prospects of achieving harmony of thought and word.


Educational process and its types. Abstract

The abstract considers the main types of training, principles and goals of each type of educational process

In different epochs, their views on the tasks and nature of learning were formed, which determined the educational process specific to each society, the specific conditions of its life, trends in the theory and practice of learning. Thus, in the Middle Ages there was a dogmatic type of education. The essence of teaching was seen in the students’ mechanical memorization of the dogmas of the Holy Scriptures. Students were only required to reproduce the study material, no one cared whether they understood what they were learning.

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